Today We Learn About What is Computer Software How its works, System Software Complier, Java, and more
Software is a set of computer programs procedures and associated documentation related to the effective operation of a computer components that can be seen and touched Input devices output devices CPU Floppy disk etc are examples of hardware computer hardware in itself cannot perform any useful task it must be complemented with some instructions which the hardware understands and obeys A program is the name given to a list of instructions or statements that direct the computer to perftware Programs are of the following types see figure.
- System software
- Application software
System software or system packages are sets of one or more programs that are basically designed to control the operation of a computer system they are general programs written to assist users into and out of a computer and all the other steps in executing the application program in general system packages control the following
- Running of other software packages.
- Communicating with peripheral devices such as printers, hard disk and tape devices etc.
- Monitoring the use of various hardware resources such as memory operation of the computer system more effective and efficient.
Application software packages cater to the need of a specific group of users namely software for scientists for inventory control for school administration for libraty management etc the system software packages cn the other hand manage computer hardware and supervise the working of application packages such software packages also do input output device manage ment file management storage management etc. system software are the ones which directly talk with the hardware components the Software in turn talk with the system software for their execution.
You as a user would be working mostly with the background for effective utilization of computer resources and minimize human effotware are language translators loadere linkers and Operating system
Some Software such as windows 2000 and Linux, much mores.
Differences between system and Application
System software packages offer several advantages and conveniences to application programmers and computer users A Good system software allows application packages to be run on the computer with less effort without system software application packages cannot be run on the computer system However the production of system software is a complex task that requires extensive knowledge and considerable specialized training in computer science.
System programmers who prepare system software are highly trained computer specialists and important members of the computer architecture team because of its technical complexity a system software is rarely developed in house system software is normally developed and distributed by the computer system would usually receive, in addition to the hardware some software needed for the effective of his computer figure 2.28 depicts the layers that isolate hardware form users.
Figure Lasers the isolate hardware form users the system software is an indispensable part of a tolal computer system its function is to compensate for the differences that exist between the user needs and the of the hardware a computer without system software would be ineffective and impossible to operate.
A program which translates a high level language program into a machine language program is knawan as a comiler it checks all kinds of limits, ranges errors etc But its program execution time is more and occupies larger part of the memory it has low speed and low efficiency of memory utilization lf a compiler funs on a computer for which it produces the object code it is known as a self or resident compiler if a compiler runs on a computer than that for which it produces a object code, it is known as a cross compiler.
An interpreter is a program which translates one statement of a high level language program into machine codes and executes it in this way it program are translated and executed on the other hand a compiler goes through the entire high level language program once or twice and then translates the entire program into machine codes a compiler is nearly 5 to 25 times faster than an interpreter an interpreter is a smaller program as compared ot the compiler it needs less memory space it can be used in a smaller system which with limited memory space the object program produced by the compiler is permanently saved for future feference on the other hand the object code of the statement produced by an interpretet is not saved if an instruction is used next time it must be interpreted once again and translated into machine codes.
Common High Level Languages and their Applications
High level languages are the simplest and most widely used languages for application development. The programs of this category are more concerned with solution rather than the details of the computer hardware behavior Languages such as FORTAN Formula and basic beginners all purpose symbolic interpreter convert a program in high level language to machine code before being executed by computer
It is a general purpose high level language this language was designed by a group at Bell telephone laboratories USA in the early 1970 it permits manipulation of internal processor registers hence a programmer can write low level machine instructions c has the features of assembly languge programming also it is a small and concise language it makes use of a library of functions that are equivalent to subroutines c programs can cise language it makes use of divided into smaller tasks and a function may be used to solve each task c program may represent a grouping of functions that are linked gogether ot produce the solution of the problem this language is used by system programmers to develop complex programs such as and operating system a American as an operating system atamd to American telephone and telegraph company bell lab s parent company produce the c compile and unix operating system tolls as a single software package it has many vesions which run on pc s and other types of machines
It is an abbreviation for formula translation fortran was introduced by IBM International Business Machines in 1957 lt is a very useful language for scientific for programs written in language many libraries of engineering and programs written in. FORTRAN are available to users it is not suitable for processing large business files it has a number of versions earlier FORTRAN was very popular in 1977 the American national standards institute published a standard for known as FORTRAN 77 with the objective that all manufacturers should use the same form of the language.
C++ has been developed using C as the base for its syntax although C++ can be use to write procedural programmes like c its real value lies in its syntax elements which enable us to read and write programs easily thus C++ provides an additional det of object oriented facilities besides the existing syntax.
Java is a programming language which is platform independent and very secure for use in the internet java cand e defined as a simple object oriented robst secure architecture neutral por table high performance multi threaded and dnamic language the designers of the javea have designed java language and its APLs application programming interface to be easy to learn and use as compared to other general purpose ianguages such as c and c++ The syntax of the java programming language is based on the c many of the object oriented programming concepts are the same as in C++ and important reason for the success of javahas been its features for networking and distributing objects in an enterprise environment.
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